what two types of evidence should you use to support your reasons

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what two types of evidence should you use to support your reasons

This page explores the types of evidence used in argumentation. See also the page on logic and argumentation.
With it, the writer attempts to win the reader over to his/her view of the topic, or, at the very least, to show the reader a new perspective about the subject discussed. If the writer is going to make some headway with an argument, however, he/she must be able to give evidence to support the claims the paper will make. There are three main categories of evidence that are essential to gain the audience’s confidence in the writer’s assertions. These categories are Fact, Judgment, and Testimony.

In analyzing evidence, it helps to have an idea of the different types that are out there. Then, you can classify the facts in what you are reading: pick which type(s) they belong to. Here are some of the most common types of evidence writers use to support their points:

  • Numbers (for example, date and time, or any specific number or measurement: Length of a boat, number of witnesses, votes for a certain bill, score of a game, etc.)
    • Statistics. Although technically just one form of number evidence, statistics are special enough to count as their own separate type of evidence, especially because they are so valuable at making evidence representative.
  • Names (for example, place names, names of individuals, organizations, movements, etc.)
  • Expert opinion (this refers to the use of someone else’s knowledge or opinion, not that of the author—when the author quotes or mentions a recognized expert in the field)
  • Specialized knowledge (the author’s own knowledge, not common knowledge, usually acquired through some sort of formal training)
  • Individual stories/examples, also known as anecdotal evidence (When the term “anecdotal” evidence is used, it is generally a negative or critical term suggesting that the evidence is not representative. Individual stories or examples, however, are often useful evidence.)
  • Physical details (sense data)—things you can see, hear, touch, smell or taste
    • Dialogue (Speech of other people reported directly, exactly as spoken, usually with quotation marks [“ ”] around it and set off in separate paragraphs, one for each speaker. Technically this is a subset of physical detail, because it is something you can hear, but direct reporting of what people have said is important enough to be considered a separate category.)
  • Documentary evidence (evidence from documents). This includes all of the following, among many others:
    • Letters
    • Diaries
    • Unpublished writings (early drafts of works published later; juvenile works by famous authors, etc.)
    • Laws
    • Administrative policies, like the Washington Administrative Code
    • Court decisions
    • Speeches, interviews, and other statements by relevant people

What two types of evidence should you use to support your reasons
Here are some examples of sources of information and tips about how to use them in gathering evidence. Ask your instructor if you aren’t sure whether a certain source would be appropriate for your paper.
Sometimes the best evidence for your argument is a hard fact or visual representation of a fact. This type of evidence can be a solid backbone for your argument, but you still need to create context for your reader and draw the connections you want him or her to make. Remember that statistics, data, charts, graph, photographs, and illustrations are all open to interpretation. Guide the reader through the interpretation process. Again, always, cite the origin of your evidence if you didn’t produce the material you are using yourself.

Paraphrasing: Although Source Z argues that [his/her point in your own words], a better way to view the issue is [your own point] ([citation]).

Ineffective Use of Quotation

If reasons do not make sense in the hypothetical challenge or the ‘because’ tests, there is probably something wrong with the logic of the argument. Passing those tests, however, does not insure that arguments are sound and compelling.
Reasons can be linked to claims with the word because:

References:

http://www.shoreline.edu/doldham/101/HTML/Types%20of%20Evidence.htm
http://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/evidence/
http://wts.indiana.edu/writing-guides/using-evidence.html
http://www.comm.pitt.edu/argument-claims-reasons-evidence
http://rasmussen.libanswers.com/faq/32467

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